Η αξία ως θεωρία: Special Issue, HAU Journal of Ethnographic Theory

Vol 3, No 1 (2013): http://www.haujournal.org/index.php/hau/issue/view/6/showToc                                                            Vol 3, No 2 (2013): http://www.haujournal.org/index.php/hau/issue/current

Η έκδοση αυτή περιλαμβάνει μία συλλογή από άρθρα σχετικά με το ζήτημα της ανθρωπολογίας της αξίας. Είναι χρήσιμη και εφικτή η διατύπωση μίας ανθρωπολογικής θεωρίας της αξίας; Στην εισαγωγή του τεύχους επιχειρείται ένας διάλογος ανάμεσα στις αντιτιθέμενες απόψεις, της δυνατότητας μιας καίριας συμβολής της ανθρωπολογίας στην κοινωνική θεωρία της αξίας από τη μία, και της παραγωγής μίας ανθρωπολογικής αντι-θεωρίας της αξίας από την άλλη. Σημείο που οι απόψεις αυτές συγκλίνουν αποτελεί η σημασία μίας διερεύνησης του δυναμικού της αξίας ως θεωρίας.

HAU Journal 3.1, 2013HAU Journal 3.2, 2013

Από τον επίλογο της εισαγωγής:

Iteanu’s case raises the question: Are such different worldviews incompatible, and
thus do they reflect, as Weber argues, an “eternal struggle of gods” to be fought out
in the political sphere (quoted in Behnegar 2003: 127)? What Iteanu shows is how
a Dumontian analysis of the French value system can help us clarify what kind of
value conflict is actually at stake, the specifics of which are characteristic of the
French situation; this sheds light on the ideological basis of the perceived value
incompatibilities. Further comparison with other Western societies, then, will
provide the foundation for a wider perspective on how the values of freedom and
equality, potentially at least, can encompass the expression of religious choice. In
this way, the comparative analysis of value systems becomes a form of ideology
critique that can feed back, quite relevantly, into political debates. Dumont thus
defended a non-relativist stance on the study of ideologies. In principle, different
value systems are comparable and translatable into each other, and their
comparative analysis reveals their internal structures of hierarchical
encompassment.

The detailed analyses of modern exchange practices by Tsing, Foster, Ortiz,
and Dalsgaard show us how, in practice, the market is not fully commoditized: free
market exchange is a value rather than a fully realized practice. But they also make
us realize how the expansion of the market can lead to a growing dominance of
economic values and to the gradual obviation of alternative values with serious
political implications. Accordingly, we can see a monist tendency in modern
Western ideology (see Robbins in this issue), driven by the practical and
ideological success of a system that seeks to make as many things as possible
comparable against a single standard of equivalence. Exchange-value drives the
expansion of the values of economic ideology. Against this background, the
relevance of the comparative study of values stands out splendidly.

All questions of value are also questions of morality and ethics. In this sense,
looking at value as theory cannot avoid questions of value as morality. Although
the market and its agents, as Ortiz shows, try to keep financial value creation
outside the sphere of ethical consideration, they, too, are forced to make some
critical ethical judgments in times of financial crises. Willerslev shows how the
story of Abraham’s near-sacrifice of Isaac, which provides the very foundation of
the Judeo-Christian understanding of faith in God, carries with it a shadow value of
trickery, which allows us to reinterpret the canonical story in quite opposite terms.
These points and many others in the papers reveal the relevance of the
anthropology of value for considering moral issues.

πηγή: http://www.haujournal.org/index.php/hau/article/view/264/336

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